Update 72, Lunar Mining and the Quest for Water Ice


The enigmatic and permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) of the moon have become a subject of great interest, with numerous nations eyeing the lunar south pole for potential exploration. These regions, shrouded in darkness, are believed to hold valuable resources, most notably water ice, which could prove vital for future human habitats and space missions. This article will delve into the significance of PSRs, the ongoing Artemis 3 lunar mission, the potential of lunar mining, ethical considerations, and the importance of international collaboration in ensuring sustainable lunar exploration.

The Significance of Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs)

Permanently shadowed regions are unique areas on the moon’s poles where sunlight never reaches due to their topographical features. Scientists are particularly intrigued by these regions as they are thought to contain ancient deposits that could offer vital clues about the moon’s history and the formation of our solar system. The presence of water ice in these regions is of particular interest, as water is essential for sustaining human life and can also be converted into valuable resources like oxygen and rocket fuel.

Artemis 3 Mission: Paving the Way for Lunar Exploration

NASA’s ambitious Artemis program aims to land a human crew near the moon’s south pole, with the goal of establishing sustainable lunar exploration. The Artemis 3 mission, often referred to as America’s “rebooting of the moon,” is a crucial step in this endeavor. The lunar south pole, specifically Shackleton crater, has been identified as a potential landing site, primarily due to the presence of PSRs rich in water ice and other valuable resources.

However, determining the precise landing site requires meticulous planning, considering factors such as proximity to PSRs, access to sunlight for power generation, and communication capabilities. It is also essential to ensure that the exploration activities do not inadvertently harm the fragile lunar environment or disrupt potential scientific studies of the region.

The Potential of Lunar Mining and Resource Utilization

The prospect of lunar mining has sparked discussions on the possibility of extracting valuable resources from the moon’s surface. Water ice, a potential treasure trove hidden in the PSRs, could serve as a critical resource for future human missions, providing life-sustaining necessities and facilitating exploration beyond the moon.

NASA’s Artemis program aims to utilize lunar resources to support sustained human presence on the moon and reduce reliance on Earth for essential supplies. While lunar mining holds great promise, it also raises ethical questions regarding space property rights and responsible resource utilization. The principles of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 guide international space law, emphasizing that celestial bodies are not subject to national ownership. Consequently, future lunar mining initiatives must be approached collaboratively to ensure equitable distribution and preservation of lunar resources.

Promoting International Collaboration: The International Lunar Year (ILY)

To foster global cooperation in lunar exploration, the proposal for an International Lunar Year (ILY) has gained traction. Drawing inspiration from past international scientific initiatives, the ILY seeks to create a platform for collaboration among nations involved in lunar exploration.

Recognizing that scientific progress is an international endeavor, the ILY promotes transparency, confidence-building, and cooperative efforts among moon-faring entities. By including developing countries in the process, the ILY aims to ensure that lunar exploration benefits all nations, regardless of their economic or scientific development.


The exploration of the moon’s permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) represents a new frontier in lunar science and space exploration. As we set our sights on the lunar south pole and its potentially invaluable resources, it is crucial to proceed responsibly and collaboratively. By adhering to ethical principles, promoting international cooperation, and embracing sustainable practices, humanity can unlock the secrets of PSRs and pave the way for a promising and responsible lunar future.


  • NASA has made the decision to discard a massive ‘superpressure’ balloon into the Pacific Ocean following an unexpected anomaly. The high-altitude balloon, which was the second of its kind, experienced a leak, leading to its descent to the bottom of the ocean.
  • The SpaceX Ax-2 private astronaut mission has been officially cleared for launch on May 21. All systems are a go for this upcoming mission.